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Panic Disorder

Panic attacks are sudden periods of intense fear or anxiety that can include physical symptoms such as rapid heart rate, shortness of breath, dizziness, and chest pain.

Panic disorder is a condition in which a person experiences recurrent panic attacks and may also have persistent concerns about having another attack or worry about the consequences of an attack.

Panic disorder can co-occur with other mental health conditions, such as depression, anxiety disorders, and substance use disorders. The prevalence of panic disorder varies depending on the population studied, but it is estimated to affect between 1-3% of the general population.

Symptoms and Diagnostic Criteria

Diagnostic criteria for panic disorder include recurrent unexpected panic attacks, followed by at least one month of persistent concern about having another attack or worry about the consequences of an attack.

In order to be diagnosed with panic disorder, a person must also have at least three of the following symptoms during a panic attack: palpitations, pounding heart, or accelerated heart rate; sweating; trembling or shaking; sensations of shortness of breath or smothering; feeling of choking; chest pain or discomfort; nausea or abdominal distress; feeling dizzy, unsteady, lightheaded, or faint; derealization (feeling detached from oneself); or depersonalization (feeling detached from one’s surroundings).


There are several risk factors for developing panic disorder, including a family history of the condition, a history of abuse or trauma, and certain personality traits such as perfectionism and low self-esteem. The exact cause of panic disorder is not known, but it is thought to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors.


The prognosis for panic disorder is generally good with appropriate treatment. Treatment may include medication, such as antidepressants or anti-anxiety medications, and/or psychological therapy, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy. With treatment, most people with panic disorder are able to manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life.

Therapy for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) CBT is a type of therapy that focuses on changing the thought patterns and behaviors that contribute to a person’s symptoms. In the case of panic disorder, CBT can help a person identify and change the negative thoughts and beliefs that trigger panic attacks, as well as teach them coping strategies to manage their symptoms.

Exposure and response prevention (ERP) This type of therapy involves gradually exposing a person to the things that trigger their panic attacks, in a controlled and safe environment, in order to help them learn to manage their symptoms. For example, a person with a fear of flying may be gradually exposed to the experience of flying in a simulator, in order to help them learn to manage their fear and anxiety.

Other types of therapy that may be used to treat panic attacks and panic disorder include relaxation techniques, such as deep breathing and meditation, and psychodynamic therapy, which focuses on exploring the underlying causes of a person’s symptoms.

Overall, the type of therapy used to treat panic attacks and panic disorder will depend on the individual and their specific symptoms and needs. A combination of therapy and medication may be most effective for treating this condition.

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